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The ADDIE model of Instructional Design


The much talked of ADDIE model forms the basis for development of training material by instructional designers and trainers.

It is an acronym that stands for the following terms:

  1. Analysis
  2. Design
  3. Development
  4. Implementation
  5. Evaluation

The model was originally developed by Florida State University for preparing military training material. The detailed steps have been modified and have evolved since then.


Before developing instructional material on a particular topic, the developer should analyze the exact learning need or problem that needs to be addressed. The stage seeks answers to all the whats, whos and hows of the training, and finds out-

The profile of the trainees

The learning need gap in terms of knowledge, soft skills, attitude change or any other teaching to take place.

The mode of delivery of the training

The learning theories to follow when developing the course

The major constraints and challenges

Phase 2: DESIGN

This phase is all about building the skeletal structure for the training material to stand on. It includes planning the design strategy, content and graphic design themes, instructional strategy and designing the user interface. Care must be taken to specify each and every instructional design element so as to avoid errors later.


This is about actually developing the content and graphics based on the blueprint created in the design phase. Programmers develop, integrate and test e-learning technologies in case it’s an e-learning program.


This involves actually putting the training into action. Teacher and learner guidelines are specified to both groups. Student registration, distribution of training material to student group and ensuring smooth delivery are part of this stage.


This stage consists of formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is a part of all the above stages as well, and summative evaluation consists of tests for finding out how well the training objectives have been met, and options for collecting feedback from learners which can then be incorporated into the learning program.


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